This page contains abstracts of researches and literary papers published in different national, regional or international research journals.


Zadeh, Z. F. & Ahmad, K. B. (2008). Number of working hours and male employees’ psychological work stress levels. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research. National Institute of Psychology, Centre of Excellence, Quaid – e – Azam University, Islamabad. 23.



Number of Working Hours and Male Employees’ Psychological Work-Stress Levels

The present study aimed at exploring the difference in male employees’ psychological work-stress levels, working more than or less 40 hours per week. The total number of 70 participants, aged 24 to 34 years, all residing in Karachi participated in the study. They were later divided into two groups based on the number of their working hours per week being either greater or less than / equal to 40 hours per week – a figure which was taken as the standard for optimum level of psychological work-stress. A self-constructed Psychological Work-Stress questionnaire along with a demographic information questionnaire was administered to all individuals to find out their psychological stress levels and calculate the amount of working hours per week. It was hypothesized that the  level of psychological work stress will be higher in male employees who work more than 40 hours per week as compared to those who working less than or equal 40 hours per week. A Chi-square test of independence and “t test” were computed and the hypothesis was significant at p< 0.01 level.  The research finding suggests that a significant difference was found between male employees working for more than 40 hours per week and those working for less  than or equal to 40 hours per week as regards their likelihood of being psychologically stressed.

Keywords: number of working hours, psychological work stress, adult employees, nature of job


Ahmad, K.B. (2011). Cultural Connectivity in the SAARC Region – Creativity and Social Learning as Mediators for Change. The Eight Neighbours – Together We Survive. Foundation of Saarc Writers and Literature. Saarc Apex Body. New Delhi.

(for a FOSWAL publication showcased at the 17th SAARC Summit in Maldives from 10th to 11th November. )

Cultural Connectivity in the SAARC Region – Creativity and Social Learning as Mediators for Change

This paper aims to understand the possibilities of a sustainable cultural dialogue in the region of South Asia through creative avenues. Culture is defined in a rural – urban migratory perspective emphasizing the pastoral tradition using Ravenstein’s (1885) classical views rather than the relatively modern but regionally less applicable ideas of Park (1922). By providing a historical overview of the cultural and linguistic traditions within the subcontinent the applicability of the social learning theory is examined using a hierarchical model. The theoretical framework involves the linkage of multiple factors including creativity, social learning and their sub-factors to cultural connectivity. The educational sector and the youth sector are shown to be significant contributors as well as interlocutors of change for a culturally healthier region. Macro level collaboration between institutions in the educational sector in each country within the jurisdiction of SAARC is suggested as a means of using creativity and social learning to initiate and enhance cultural connectivity in the long term.

Keywords: creativity, social learning, cultural connectivity, South Asia, education.


Ahmad, K.B. (2011). Celebrating Otherness : Invocation of the Sufi Spirit in the New Millennium. Beyond Borders. Foundation of Saarc Writers and Literature. Saarc Apex Body. New Delhi.

(showcased at the International Sufi Conference in Bhopal from 18th to 20th November 2011. )

Celebrating Otherness : Invocation of the Sufi Spirit in the New Millennium

This paper explores the contemporary framework of the ‘Other’ and ‘Otherness’ in general and within Sufi traditions. Current patterns in music and the devotional visits to shrines along with emerging trends in thought are also mentioned. Allegorical instances in the poetry and prose of prominent Sufi saints, particularly those of Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi, Bullhe Shah and Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai are quoted and described to show the levels of tolerance, amity and equality for all, which form the roots of Sufi traditions based on the language of love. Working with an analysis of the literature review and a survey of more than 100 adults between the ages of 18 and 60 of South Asian origin, a case is made for going one step further and addressing the need of awareness building measures in the education of our youth related to the teachings and ‘lifestyle’ of Sufis, as well as their ‘current influences’. The paper then addresses the implications of the current scenario on the future of our present generation and the next one, in this Millennium, along with the definite need and readiness of the masses for a deeper understanding of Sufi traditions based on respect for all.

Keywords: Sufism, otherness of the other, education, equality, Millennium

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